Happy Friday, June 12th – can you believe we are almost ½ way through June already! We hope this posting finds you looking forward to a stellar weekend. We wrap the Health and Wellness series on days, months, time and seasons with time zones. Due the global nature of our business, time zones pay a critical part in coordination of our efforts.
Please enjoy your weekend, be safe and remember no new postings on the weekend. We will be back on Monday and we hope to see you virtually then. Thank you for your continued interest not only in the postings but also in Hatch Stamping Company! In addition, if you have not reached out to your Human Resources profession with current contact information please do so.
Currently, Hatch Stamping Company has no reported corona virus cases.
Health and Wellness
Life isn’t about getting and having, it’s about giving and being. –Kevin Kruse
Why do we need Time Zones
When well-regulated mechanical clocks became widespread in the early 19th century, each city began to use local mean solar time. Apparent and mean solar time can differ by up to around 15 minutes (as described by the equation of time) because of the elliptical shape of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun (eccentricity) and the tilt of the Earth’s axis (obliquity). Mean solar time has days of equal length, and the accumulated difference between the two sums to zero after a year.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) was established in 1675, when the Royal Observatory was built, as an aid to mariners to determine longitude at sea, providing a standard reference time while each city in England kept a different local time.
Local solar time became increasingly inconvenient as rail transport and telecommunications improved, because clocks differed between places by amounts corresponding to the differences in their geographical longitudes, which varied by four minutes of time for every degree of longitude. For example, Bristol, England is about 2.5 degrees west of Greenwich (East London), so when it is solar noon in Bristol, it is about 10 minutes past solar noon in London.
The first adoption of a standard time was in November 1840, in Great Britain by railway companies using GMT kept by portable chronometers. The first of these companies to adopt standard time was the Great Western Railway (GWR) in November 1840. This quickly became known as Railway Time. About August 23, 1852, time signals were first transmitted by telegraph from the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Even though 98% of Great Britain’s public clocks were using GMT by 1855, it was not made Britain’s legal time until August 2, 1880. Some British clocks from this period have two minute hands—one for the local time, one for GMT.
Sir Sandford Fleming proposed a worldwide system of time zones in 1879. He advocated his system at several international conferences, and is credited with “the initial effort that led to the adoption of the present time meridians”. In 1876, his first proposal was for a global 24-hour clock, conceptually located at the centre of the Earth and not linked to any surface meridian. His system was proposed at the International Meridian Conference in October 1884, but it did not adopt his time zones because they were not within its purview. The conference did adopt a universal day of 24 hours beginning at Greenwich midnight.
By about 1900, almost all inhabited places on Earth had adopted one or other standard time zone; but only some of these used an hourly offset from GMT. Many applied the time at a local astronomical observatory to an entire country, without any reference to GMT. It took many decades before all time zones were based on some “standard offset” from GMT/UTC. By 1929, most major countries had adopted hourly time zones.
Today, all nations use standard time zones for secular purposes, but they do not all apply the concept as originally conceived. Newfoundland, India, Iran, Afghanistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, the Marquesas, as well as parts of Australia use half-hour deviations from standard time, and some nations, such as Nepal, and some provinces, such as the Chatham Islands of New Zealand, use quarter-hour deviations. Some countries, such as China and India, use a single time zone even though the extent of their territory far exceeds 15° of longitude.